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Free Books > Science > Agricultural Sciences > Irrigation
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Water Management in Jordan Essay
Condition: Fair. A readable copy.
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Pages can include considerable notes-in pen or highlighter-but the notes cannot obscure the text. Seller Inventory GI5N About this Item: Thorsons. Published by University of California Press About this Item: University of California Press, Former Library book.
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Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Seller Inventory GRP About this Item: Hutchinson. The dust jacket is missing. Great condition for a used book! Minimal wear. Published by World Health Organization About this Item: World Health Organization, Published by Hutchinson The wells were create initially to evacuate spoil during work of execution of the gallery, and were used thereafter in work known as maintenance, this on the one hand; on the other hand these wells are points of ventilation for Foggara.
Aghessro: the part covered with flagstone of likings when the gallery emerges with the free air. Medjra: when it leaves this protection. Kasria: the stone punt bored of gauged arch which orders the distribution of water Irrigation channels: small channels on the outlet side of the distributer, or water is led in the pieces. Madjen: very flat clay basin compacted in the capacity approximately equivalent to the volume of water delivered in24 hours Guemoun: compartmental unit.
The problems involved in the nature of the drained sheet of water, the low flow which can characterize the majority of primarily Foggara cost to the not very permeable nature of the tank. Problems involved in the exploitation of drillings:. The permanent exploitation of water drillings influences the aggregate rate drained by Foggara and can lead to the total drying up of this system of collecting. The irrigation by pivots is an imported American technique, which was established in several Arab countries touched by the desert fact. The irrigation by pivot is a system of watering which consists in distributing water in the form of rains on ground; very employed for a long time by the gardeners, the horticulturists and arboricultures for the cultures.
Market-gardening, floral, shrubby, fruit-bearing, the lawns, sprinkling tends, considering the large advantages which it has and which we further enumerate, with being used more and more in field.
In all the old methods water is distributed with more or less uniformity on the ground by drains and it penetrates there under conditions more or less favorable according to its regularity and its slope, into the system pivot water fall naturally on the ground, therefore under the same conditions as atmospheric precipitations, and infiltrates there, taking into account only the permeability of the ground. The operation of the system pivot; this mode rests on a drilling, to which corresponds a tripod and a mechanical arm variable length being able to reach m , which turns night and day slowly and can sprinkle with a blow 30 to 50 hectares this technique requires important investments, drilling, material, assembly and maintenance.
We quote that the simple processes or sprinkling is done with the watering-can or water cart, we will examine the modern processes which use:.
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Pressure lines which distribute water in touts the points useful of surface to be sprinkled and which supply the apparatuses of distributions. These installations are fixed, mobile or mixed, they are known as fixed when the pumping station and the network of drains are placed in a permanent way, they make it possible to remove most of the labor of operation, but the formation expenses are very high and they are known as mobile when the unit can move at will, one fall then into opposite excess; one does not make any more economy of labor, reason to the difficulty of transported the material at will what allows are use with full output during all the period with watering, from where a better damping.
The microphone-irrigation, also known under the name of "drop by drop", is a method of irrigation used in arid region because it to the minimum reduces the use of water and manure. Water drains slowly towards the roots of the plants either while running on the surface of the ground or by directly irrigating the rhizosphere by a system of pipes. This technique is the most important innovation in agriculture since the invention of the aspersers in the years , which had already replaced at the time an irrigation requiring too much of water.
The system drop by drop with low pressure is a vital in the arid regions and semi-arid need. The irrigation is an artificial water contribution to crop plants, the purpose of which is to compensate for the insufficiency of natural precipitations and to allow the harmonious development of these plants. There are two great kinds of irrigation: the irrigation of surface and the irrigation under pressure.
The latter represents two types, the first is the irrigation by sprinkling, the second is the localized irrigation of which the drip. The drip is a form of the located irrigation, so called "micro-irrigation". It consists in sprinkling only one fraction of the ground, and does not wet the foliage, by using low water flows with low pressures. Water forms, under surface, a wet "bulb", which maintains dry most of surface.
Evaporation is considerably braked, as well as the lifting the adventitious ones. One can say that water does not sprinkle the ground, but the plant; it "is directly returned roots". One measures all the economy which results from it, in all the hot countries, compared to the gravitating irrigation.
But keep we to condemn this one: the percolation is often imperative under hot climate, like the case of several areas of Algeria and in particular the high plateaus and the Sahara. It does not require any preliminary experiment as regards irrigation and can be operated by any family member.
To become palm plantations in the state of Adrar is primarily related to the good performance of the traditional system of irrigation which is it "Foggara". This being, any drying up is likely to generate the total deterioration of the palm plantation resulting in a projection of the sebkha and the total abandonment of the pieces. The example of the area of Tamest reflects the actual position of Foggara, and makes it possible to determine the causes of the drying up of Foggara whose, the rate of losses by percolation in the inactive part of Foggara, the lack of maintenance clearing out and the problems involved in the exploitation of water drillings.
On the basis of element developed above it can be proposed the following recommendations: In order to be able to rehabilitate in a durable way Foggara them it takes place there of:. The vegetable production is structured vertically in a palm plantation of more than one score of years; under the date palm of the fruit trees fig tree, olive-tree, vine, and pomegranate are planted.
It is very important to see the impact of the old system of irrigation "Foggara" and recent "drop by drop, pivot" on the environment; That is to say impact:. April Memories of the anthropological and historical prehistoric research national center". Similar topics of scientific paper in Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries , author of scholarly article — Mohammed Amine Kendouci, Ali Bendida, Rachid Khelfaoui, Benali Kharroubi The role of the gallery in the functioning of the foggara. It is very important to see the impact of the old system of irrigation " Foggara" and recent "drip, pivot" on the environment; Or impact: - On the groundwater resources - On the ground - And on agricultural output Keywords: The Algerian Sahara, groundwater resource, flow, Foggara, drip, pivot.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. Introduction Exit of the administrative cutting of , state of Adrar extends on the Northern part of the Algerian Western South, thus covering a surface of